Born abroad and educated here: examining the impacts of education and skill mismatch among immigrant graduates in Europe│McGuiness, Seamus and Byrne, Delma (2015)│IZA Journal of Migration, 4 (17). pp. 1-30. ISSN 2193-9039

This paper examines the wage and job satisfaction effects of over-education and overskilling among migrants graduating from EU-15 based universities in 2005. Female migrants with shorter durations of domicile were found to have a higher likelihood of overskilling. Newly arrived migrants incurred wage penalties which were exacerbated by additional penalties resulting from overskilling in the male labour market and overeducation in the female labour market. Established migrants were found to enjoy wage premia, with no evidence of disproportionate wage impacts arising as a consequence of mismatch. Female migrants were found to have a lower probability of being job satisfied.
The first part makes a quick inventory of immigrant integration policy in the labor market in the OECD countries. The second part presents the main theoretical approaches of decommissioning. The third part provides a measure of the prevalence of occupational downgrading by place of birth and socio-demographic characteristics. The fourth part deepens this analysis by trying to control for a number of cognitive and linguistic skills. The conclusion summarizes the main findings and highlights the policy issues related to taking during occupational downgrading of immigrants.
Deals with the question how to motivate migrants to study and how to integrate them in the labour market to counter the shortage of workers